nature of the societal response and the reality it constructs

Mid-TermExplain how the nature of the societal response and the reality it constructs determines whether a crime has occurred, and who is criminal. What consequences arise from this form of “labeling?”Social response is a by-product of the joint judgment from a group of individuals with likeminded opinion on the situation at hand. Therefore, there might be a concrete reason for their response making their response justified and true in their behavior towards a wrong or not credible and their response will not be justified. Societal response is inclined with the masses perception of the justified facts about a criminal. If they have a negative attitude towards criminals, anybody who will be considered a criminal is deemed unworthy to the society’s good. The society forms the basis of determining the occurrence of a crime and the criminal who has committed a crime. Since they are on the same level with the criminal, their action towards the suspect will be determined by their action towards the same. The societal responses are directly related to the different emotions that they portray at the incident of the event. Rational actions are related with a group’s anger towards an immoral committed to them or an individual in the society in which they do belong. Unlike, emotional actions towards an event or person, it is easily realized that a group that is rational in reacting to an event is not pleased with the event. Thus, the rational response of the group points out that the event is a crime and the person to whom they react rationally to is a criminal.Discuss and explain the role that social context plays in both criminological theory and public policy. Give some examples and an explanation to support each exampleThe society determines the basis for criminal activities or social peace. According to Barton, Corteen, Scott, and Whyte (2013), the society determines the occurrence of crime, the level of the crime and the prevalence of the crime. In the criminological theory, social disorganization is the main reason for increased crime rates. AIDitionally, social disorganization render communities weak in fighting crime and disorder in their midst. Public policies are the statutes that affect the conditions and daily welfare of social coexistence. Instituted by the governance system, they are instituted with the aim of making social existence favorable regarding the social necessities such as food, health, shelter and social welfare. Thus, they are the direct influences to the daily living conditions of human communities and the average community member. The social context in both the criminology theory and the public policy is a core principle and part in the implementation. As social context plays the roles of being a priority in the criminology theory, it is the basis of determining public policy.Describe and explain the evolution of control, power, and coercion in the development of crime theory, with particular emphasis given to – Control, Containment, Neutralization, Drift, Social Bonding and Self-Control Theories. Provide at least three theorists positing these sorts of crime causation explanations.Control theories argue that human beings commit crime due to the nature that every human being has in weakness to resist temptations. With the environments in which individuals are brought up in, the weakness and the forces like needs and economic strains, the environment forces on them have led to the increased rates of crime. Reiss suggested that¸ delinquency results from failure of personal and social controls. The modern control theories with relation to crime state that, criminals get into and out of criminal activities on an occasional basis with a high number of times in compliance with the activities that they take part. The societal classifications are determined by the power and position in which the society categorizes them. With power come an increased number of criminal activities as the perpetrators have an influential impact to the criminal activities. The modern society has evolved in terms of economic and social status compared to the past generation; as a result, many influential personalities are in the societies. According to the neutralization theory, human beings develop rejecting the mistakes that they have committed, and as they grow into adults, they regard social injustices and criminal activities normal occurrences that can happen in the society. Social circles that delinquents have drawn regarding the people they consider models in their lives have also influenced the crime theory. It is evident that they draw a line to the people whom they victimize or the areas to which they commit the criminal activities.Describe the effects that the Classical and Positivist Schools had on criminal justice reform and policies. Give several examples and explanations to support your examplesThe classical school of criminal justice is based on the belief that, criminal behavior is bent towards personal judgments and claims that, all criminals are rational beings out for pleasure with no pain. Therefore, the criminal tendency and behaviors can be rectified by swift action taken towards the delinquent individuals. One form of punishment for the offenders was infliction of pain as justification for the public good. Developed in the eighteenth century, capital punishment and law enforcement organizations were organized as systems to help fight crime and discourage prevalence of criminal activities. Criminal justice systems have adopted the basics of the classical school of thought claiming that the punishments for the delinquent individuals should measure up to the crime that they have committed. Positivism school of thought, on the other hand, defines the influences drive the activities of a delinquent person in the society that his or her environment present. Positivism, therefore recommends a treatment session or procedure for the criminals as a way to rectify their characters as part of the communities. Delinquents according to the positivist school of thought are to be secluded from the public as a way to reduce the pressures of power leading to their criminal behavior. Criminals are sentenced to life imprisonment instead of being killed in connection with the positivism school of thought.Identify and discuss the major theorists and theories positing that social disorganization and strain were the causes for criminal behavior and deviancy. Give at least one example that lives on today, as a result, of these theoriesThe Concentric Zone theory developed by Robert Ezra Park and Ernest W. Burgess which proposes that urban development is likened to the natural environment arrangements. The theory is based on the different categories of urban areas with the different settlement sections for the social classes. With the growth of the cities, normal conditions are altered leading to the creation of conditions that favor criminal activities and deviancy. Constraints like economy, poverty, and unemployment are major factors leading to increased crime rates.Strain Theory proposed by Robert Merton, states that access to social goals plays a role in determining the deviance of an individual. Economic constraints, poverty and social classes’ categories as put by the social communities are some of the influences to the deviation and criminal behavior. Thus, members in the community affected with the economic constraints are tempted to indulge in criminal activities more compared to those members economically stable.Cultural Deviance Theory proposed by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay which suggests that, the lower class in the society have characters that lead to increased crime. Therefore, anybody who acts or takes an interest in behaving in a similar manner is likely to deviate and commit crime. As per the social categories, the lower class is comprised of the community members who lack or are unable to achieve the same privileges that the other community members get. They, therefore, are associated with criminal activities as a way of attaining the pleasures that they are not able to access in the normal circumstance.Opportunity and structure theory proposed by Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, which suggests that deviance and criminal activities among the youths with reference to gangs results from denied opportunities that they see fit for their age group. The constraints among different social classes are held responsible for the different behaviors of the social groups. When the youths feel like the society denies them the opportunity to access a resource in their environments, they tend to find a way to access the same from every avenue that they see can provide the same.