Describe the difference between adaptive and innate immunity

Microbiology: Bauman, R.W. (2015). Microbiology with diseases by body system (4th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN: 9780321918383
Chapter 16: Adaptive Immunity
Overview of Adaptive Immunity
1. Describe the difference between adaptive and innate immunity.
2. List and describe the 5 attributes of adaptive immunity.
Elements of Adaptive Immunity
7. Describe antigens and describe the characteristics of effective antigens. Identify, compare and contrast the three types of antigens.
10. How many kinds of MHCs are there? Where are they found? What is their function in the immune system?
11. Which cells are classified as APCs? What is an APC? What is its function in the immune system?
13. Explain how host cells know the difference between “self” and “non-self” cells when fighting infection.
15. Explain T cell clonal deletion and how it functions in autoimmune diseases. Describe clonal deletion of B cells and its purpose.
18. Describe what happens when a B cell is stimulated by the “right” antigen. Also, explain what a plasma cell is.
19. Describe what an antibody is, the general shape of an antibody, and identify where antigens bind to on an antibody.
20. Describe the five possible functions of antibodies.
Cell-Mediated Immune Responses
23. Describe the process of cytotoxic T cell activation during an immune response.
Antibody Immune Responses
26. Describe how memory B cells form and their role in immune defense.
27. Describe the difference of primary vs secondary immune response.
Chapter 23: Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System
For each of the diseases identified in this chapter:
• identify the scientific name of the causative pathogenic organism• identify the type of organism (bacterium, fungus, virus, protozoan, helminth, prion, etc.)• identify the key signs & symptoms of the disease (especially those that differentiate it from other similar diseases)• describe differentiating features of the disease: pathogenesis of the disease including any common vectors, any common means of contraction, any individuals that are more likely to contract the disease, etc.
Bacterial Diseases of the Digestive System
2. peptic ulcer disease
3. bacterial gastroenteritis
Viral Diseases of the Digestive System
6. mumps
8. viral hepatitis
Protozoan Diseases of the Intestinal Tract
10. cryptosporidiosis
Helminthic Infestations of the Intestinal Tract
14. anisakiasis
Chapter 17: Immunization and Immune Testing
Immunization
1. Describe the difference between active vs passive immunity. Describe the difference between acquired and natural immunity. Be able to combine these four concepts correctly and provide examples of each.
2. Describe Edward Jenner’s 1796 experiment and its key finding. Also, describe where scientists got the term vaccination. Lastly, define vaccination, variolation, vaccine and immunization.
3. Identify the pros and cons and the difference between the following types of vaccines: attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, combination vaccines, and vaccines using recombinant gene technology.
4. Describe herd immunity and its purpose. Explain what is used in the U.S. to enable herd immunity.
5. Describe the three major safety concerns or problems with vaccines. Also, explain whether current research supports the claims that vaccines can trigger autism, diabetes and/or asthma.
6. Describe passive immunotherapy. Describe how antibodies are acquired for passive immunotherapy. Describe the three major limitations of passive immunotherapy.
7. Describe and identify the purpose of hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies.
Serological Tests That Use Antigens and Corresponding Antibodies
8. Describe serology and the purpose of serological tests.
10. Describe immune complexes and the basic process of precipitation and immunodiffusion tests. Also, explain the purpose of using these tests (i.e., what can they tell you?).
12. Describe and identify the purpose of agglutination tests. Also, define the following: agglutination, hemagglutination, titration and titer.
13. Describe and identify the purpose of the two types of neutralization tests.
14. Describe and identify the purpose of labeled antibody tests. Also, describe the difference between the four types of antibody tests. Lastly, be sure to identify the purpose of a Western blot test and briefly describe how it is performed.
15. Describe immunofiltration assays and immunochromatographic assays. Also, identify how they are generally different from the other tests described in the chapter.
Chapter 24: Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems
For each of the diseases identified in this chapter:
• identify the scientific name of the causative pathogenic organism• identify the type of organism (bacterium, fungus, virus, protozoan, helminth, prion, etc.)• identify the key signs & symptoms of the disease (especially those that differentiate it from other similar diseases)• describe differentiating features of the disease: pathogenesis of the disease including any common vectors, any common means of contraction, any individuals that are more likely to contract the disease, etc.
Bacterial Diseases of the Urinary System
2. leptospirosis
Nonveneral Diseases of the Reproductive System
6. vaginal candidiasis
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Diseases (STDs)
Bacterial STDs
8. syphilis
9. chlamydial infections
Viral STDs
11. genital herpes
12. genital warts
Protozoan STDs
13. trichomoniasis.